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When this occurs they always end Vt^ith a narrower sound and in a higher position than that with which they begin, the vanishing sounds in the case of the high vo Avels becoming consonantal in quality. There is another characteristic of vowels, on which it is not necessary to dwell at length, since it has no practical AHTICULATION OF TUB CONSONANTS. This churacteristic is their absolute pitcli, that is, tlieir pitch Voted pitch. as dependent upon t Jie phice of their production in the mouth cavity. II jau II au, 37 Illustrated in Phonetic Tran- script, 73. Irish : Strong aspiration of front con- sonants, 10. Highland Scotch : Distinctness of articulation of consonants, 47. A very ^^''■''''"'"'^■ ' See pages i-iii for diagrams. common fault in ])reatliing, particularly among women, is the lial)it of l)ringing into play only the upper portion «f the lungs, leaving tlieir l)ase unexercised. The necessity of breathing so that tlie action of tlie lungs may be fult chierty in the rt'gion of the alxlouien and lower ribs must be kept in mind by tluwe who desire to improve the power and (quality of the voice. As with s and z the voiceless \ is often erroneously re- placed by the voiced 5. tinuant because the tongue vibrates as the breath-stream passes. A consonant in any p( sition may be formed in con- Voiced and nectiou with a murmur produced by vibration of thec^,^^,^^^^^. Consonants formed with this vibration are said to be voiced, while those formed without it are said to be voiceless. The tendency to allow the voiced consonant to usurp the place of its voiceless associate is nowhere, more com- mon than with z and s ; so we hear pa:azist, objuwziv, diziuis, etc., for persist (p8: Jsist), abusive (abjuwsiv), dis- miss (dismis), etc. The consonants m, n, T), are formed in the posi- tions of I), d and g respectively, and are stopi)ed in the mouth, but the uvula is lowered so that the breath may pass through the nose, they are therefore susceptible of prolongation and are thus of the nature oi continuants. Table of the voiceless and corresponding voiced con- sonants : voiceless, p av ! The defect called lisping is caused by lowering the tongue tip and allowing the breath to pass between it and the teeth so as to produce the sounds and i S, instead of s and z ; so lisp (lisp) is pronoxmced li6p, sings (sipz), 6i T)cf, etc.

Out-door sports, gymnastic and calis- tlienic exercises, and extension motions conduce largely to these ends ; but as direct instruments of voice culture, Defective l)reatliing exercises are perhaps most effective. Hence we have front, neutral tral and *It has not been thought necessary to use distinctive symbols for voiceless m, n, 1, etc., which occur in combination with other voiceless consonants; though elocutionists often err in giving them vocality in such cases : e.g., clear is made .almost dissyllable. This distinction is of service mainly in describ- ing the difference between vowels formed in the same part of the mouth, as the two i sounds in siti (city), of which the latter is the wider. An important character- istic of our English long vowels is that they are usually diphthongized. In ordinary breathing the chords are relaxed and the opening is large, so that the Futictions. When sound is to be pro- duced, however, the chords are drawn together and rendered tense, oljstructing the breath current and vibrat- ing as it passes through. The frequency of the vibrations varies with the tensiun of the chords or the length of the edges of the opening between them. My little treatise on reading will therefore begin with a lirief study of phonetics, comprising the distinguishing characteristics of the sounds of our Lmguage, the mode of their production, and their representation by definitive and consistent syndiols. These sounds owe their distinctive characteristics mainly to changes in the position of the organs which are situated in or con- nected with the above named cavities and to consequent modifications in tlie stream of breath emitted.

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