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Despite their differences, the two systems allow comparison for statistical purposes.Pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP) with a daily dose of the medications tenofovir, with or without emtricitabine, is effective in a number of groups including men who have sex with men, couples where one is HIV positive, and young heterosexuals in Africa.The most effective vaccine trial to date, RV 144, was published in 2009 and found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission of roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in the research community of developing a truly effective vaccine.Treatment recommendations for children are somewhat different from those for adults.The risk of acquiring HIV from a needle stick from an HIV-infected person is estimated as 0.3% (about 1 in 333) per act and the risk following mucous membrane exposure to infected blood as 0.09% (about 1 in 1000) per act.Preventive treatment involves the mother taking antiretrovirals during pregnancy and delivery, an elective caesarean section, avoiding breastfeeding, and administering antiretroviral drugs to the newborn.

The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%.Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms.Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle.The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded integrase and host co-factors.however, the pattern of transmission varies among countries.

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